lightning discharge
Effect of Interference
Some Crop Circles are even at first glance created in close cooperation of resonance and interference effect
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Crop circles

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Crop Circles, Crop figures, Interference effect

Motto: Interference and resonance are two similar phenomena involved together in creation of many shapes. In case of that simple quite obviously, but also in the most complex structures, often inside the circle

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The effect of interference, and its almost inseparably accompanying resonance effect, are almost the most important phenomena, they are very often sharing the emergence of some incredibly regular, and also incredibly complex patterns. There are many types of interferences (and resonances). For explanation purposes of forming complex regular shapes principle in the crop field may be especially useful interferences of mechanical and electromagnetic waves and oscillations. Just only interferences and resonances of the mechanical character offer a huge range of possibilities for the explanation of emergence a variety of regular patterns. To begin therefore will be used almost exclusively reasoning and explanation, related to mechanical processes. Electromagnetic processes will be used primarily to explain the causes of plants weakening. Even without any complex proving is quite easily imaginable, that concurrent and subsequent resonance and interference effects of electromagnetic nature may "add something" in that result.


Basic Causes And Acting Forces

Is quite possible name a periodic structures, consisting of lodged (damaged, weakened) crop, as a painting, picture or image. In order to create an image anywhere, there must be present on that place two inseparable factors. Someone who is painting, and something what or where he is  painting on, or recording the picture in. Mostly painter and canvas (or a paper), or photographer and camera. Photography and painting are much in common, but use quite different methods to achieve a very similar result. Photography, as a method developed later during modern period, includes more elements of technology, physics and chemistry, but both ways always remained very closely linked and work successfully together.  It is interesting that soon after the invention of the daguerreotype, which became the first truly mass photographic method used, it becane quickly popular by some painters as a method for recording originals (besides sketches), for further work with it. However, is possible to note, though more just for fun, that photographers often use during their work a Flash. Painter and photographer are active agents who make decisions about how the results of their work look, canvas or film (emulsion) are passive agents, to that the work is recorded.


Cooperation Of Two Natural Factors


Two factors, the natural co-authors, who so successfully participate during the formation of absolutely without exception all very regular (not only regular, million times more are irregular), sometimes very complex shocking and incomprehensible shapes, simply called Crop Circles are Lightning Discharge, and Crop Field. The Lightning Discharge serves as a painter or photographer, structure of crop stalks (more or less regular grid) on the field acts as a canvas, recording material, photographic emulsion.  Photographic Emulsion on a Crop Field - more about this function. Lightning discharge at the same time serves as the main illuminator. During a Lightning Discharge there is in process over a field an action very similar to an explosion. It is possible to describe it as an "overexplosion", ie more than an explosion, from several points of view, because the time and energy characteristics of processes (mechanic), which takes place there, classical explosion caused by standard explosive in many ways overcome. That, what happens on the Lightning Discharge place, in terms of electromagnetic process, during the explosion of current explosives does not happen at all. These are the processes from energetic perspective fully comparable with what is happening there in terms of mechanical perspective. These electromagnetic processes just may take the greatest part in "recording" mainly mechanical processes in the structure of plants and their tissues, by damaging of some plant tissues, even if the effects may occur several weeks after the discharge. Mechanical processes may in the structure of vegetation create a pattern only very temporary, usually only a fraction of a second, mostly just an ordinary ring. In the aftermath of a mechanical impulse the plants immediately return thanks to their flexibility to their original position, but just before that the place could hit any subsequent discharge pulse (in average 7 to 30 ms after the previous discharge, sometimes also significantly longer). Plants are still at that moment due to the mechanical impulse of the previous discharge substantially deflected from their original position. It is the deflection of tens of degrees, in some cases may be almost pressed to the ground. In all that described cases they are very closely touching one to each other by their stems and leaves, much more than in those cases where they are standing upright without any deflection. They create in such a way just temporarily, for a short time, significantly much more conductive structure, similar to a netting or braid of sheath of a coaxial cable. If any such similar structure is hit by some subsequent discharge, all plants in such a described changed position, creating that much more conductive structure, are passes through by substantially more electricity than is the case of plants not deflected. In the aftermath of the subsequent stroke, plants also returns to their original position. Even though they were passed through such a large amount of energy, which could very seriously damage them, some of them even almost kill and some really kill, and some were even exposed to a multiple power of electric energy than that is sufficient to their all-out death, their mechanical properties are still totally indistinguishable from plants, that are completely unaffected and in quite excellent, undisturbed mechanical condition. From that moment is just beginning to run the time, during that is in progress the Weakening Stems Effect (also leaves and whole plants, of course). After some period as may sometimes last only hours, more often days, weeks or longer, plants bend to the ground. The vast majority of them without any broken stalks, that are only bent. Verified experimentally on many dozens of plant species, pictures, timelapses, videos. However, as an interesting note is also possible to mention that some plants, for example, plantain (stem) tolerate a such a great dose of electrical energy, that would some other plants (much bigger and larger volume) immediately kill. More information on page Electrophytopathology. If there were mostly affected by the electricity mainly that plants, that were during the impact of any subsequent pulse exactly at that moment creating some random interference structure, thanks to much electrical contacts temporarily appearing between them much more conductible (several thousands), just only that plants bend down and the work of one big hoax is finished.


It was one of the greatest Natural joke - mystification, clever trick, by that was the Mother Nature kidding the whole perplexed mankind.


In a similar way may also be created much less complicated structures, quite simple unique circles or their assemblies, and especially so frequently occurring patterns in the shape of circular waves and their multiple combinations intersections and interferences. If there are quite commonly created wind waves on the crop surface in the field (wonderful; photo, video; Many thanks for explaining, Mr. Vetvicka), therefore is also possible that after the impact of the step pulse from above, that is one of possible very precise characteristics of the lightning discharge, create circular waves exactly in the same way, like on the water surface after a stone falling there. It depends only on the time interval, after that hits the subsequent stroke, "making exposition", and how the circles from previous discharges were able to develop. The first discharge "painted an image" by the action of mainly mechanical forces (circular waves, their combinations and interferences flying over the field). Subsequent stroke, which happens at intervals of several tens to hundreds of milliseconds later, performs "an exposure" thanks to the fact that it "runs over" described temporarily created structure, at a time not exceeding a few millionths of a second, thus generated image as if frozen, but totally invisible (similar to a latent picture in Ag-halide gelatine layer). Waves, of course, continue in running, but most affected and damaged by the electricity are plants that just in the precise moment of the subsequent pulse impact were creating that temporary pattern described before. Subsequent stroke, in addition to the "exposition" may create more divergent circular waves, after that may hit further and further, nearby  may happen hits of many parallel discharges, simultaneous with some subsequent pulses, some of waves may be reflected from the field edge or some tramline and run in the opposite direction, and all in the various directions ongoing waves may form between themselves resonances and interferences. Finally, in the field may be after one single lightning discharge, formed mostly 5 to 10 successive pulses, many of which could have a number of parallel pulses, falling at a distance of several meters to tens of meters from one another, and on the field, in the structure of plants can create yet invisible "something", what is displayed even after many days, and what would any silly aliens ever failed to create, but what would every one of them completely shit theirselves, if they were able to discover it ever, if they had been existed ever.


Among other here in the near future will be placed a PC simulation of described processes, is currently being developed a simple program, that would allow after entering some input data view slow-motioned emergence of a simple pattern during a lightning dischare to anyone. Will be entered the number and distances of parallel lightning discharge arms, perhaps also the approximate ratio of their intensities and mainly the time that elapses before the impact of subsequent Return Stroke. If will be finished ever ...


Important Note

The processes described in the preceding paragraph, are certainly very interesting and should be quite understandable. But it is important to realize very well, that they are absolutely unrealizable in the case, that crop field is watered by streams of water up to tens thousands liters / hectar in a minute and the wind blowing speeds just slightly below 100 km/h, sometimes well over. There is no need too big imagination to reach conclusion, that similar processes are in such a case quite impossible, but of course, creates a completely irregular lodging (damaging, weakening). Such a statement is entirely consistent with the assumption, that, unlike the irregular lodging (damaging, weakening) are periodic patterns created only in very exceptional cases, under random cooperation of very rare conditions. Approximate no wind and the absence of heavy rain could be two of them. Although of course can not be excluded, that sometimes may be some simple patterns created even during relatively heavy rain and wind, but it would be even rather difficult to imagine. Use to verify the possibility of carrying out certain phenomena described here, taking place in the fields, different method than imagination, alternatively theoretical assumptions and calculations, would also be quite difficult. Send human explorers to the crop field during a thunderstorm, to observe or measure something there, would be quite risky operation, because it would be very likely relatively quickly reduced their number, and there would be need of their continual refilling.


A Bolt From The Blue (BFTB)

Therefore it is quite likely, that complex regular pattern could be created under certain conditions, particularly due to a phenomenon called The Bolt From The Blue, BFTB. Witnesses who saw some BFTB, would not even reaize it, because it is not accompanied by such a great sound effect at all, as a standard lightning during a thunderstorm accompanied by an extensive cloud cover. They may describe only some indefinite light effects. Sound effect (acoustic energy) of normal lightning storm is spreading in 2D environment - its volume decreases with the square of the distance, and therefore much slower, than in the case of the BFTB, when the sound is not reflected many times between clouds and the ground and decreases as the cube of the distance, and in addition is a substantial part diverted by upward expanding lightning channel straight up and has not any possibility to bounce back from anything (no clouds). Therefore, it may be accompanied by a weak cracking, as if in the distance struck high voltage wires one to other. What observers describe during emergence of the pattern in the film Mayan prophecy - crop circles (mentioned on the page Dual Discharge Effect), was BFTB. Maybe in the UK there appear BFTB slightly more often, than elsewhere in the world. Above all but there are probably present many other local conditions, supporting the emergence of Crop Circles, for example Archeology, Geology, Rods in Fields (underground).


Basic Shapes

All actions, that were created by a jump change, what is lightning discharge, too, tend to spread as waves or oscillations, whose boundaries are very accurate spherical shapes, and in the case of projection into a plane or operating on a planar surface create very accurate circle. As an example can be used spreading of a shock wave in the air, observable after a nuclear bomb explosion under favorable meteorological conditions. (photo). Another example may be a shock wave photographed near some supersonic airplanes (photo). As already mentioned, by the impact of discharges into the plants in the field are created primarily circular waves. In some continuing paragraph later on this page will be paid more attention to that quite complex interference shapes.


Excursion To Irregular Structures (Shapes)

Among other no choice but again strongly remind that as like as all that very regular patterns are formed with the cooperation of natural painter - the lightning discharge, and the structure of crop - natural photographic emulsion (also a raster with specific granularity) are almost identical as any created irregular, commonly lodged (damaged, weakened) crop shapes anywhere in the world. Indeed, all regular Crop Circles in quite inseparably accompanied by, formed at the same places, in some cases even a bit earlier, than regular patterns. Above all, there begins in almost all cases, when there is discovered any regular pattern, is very quickly lodged (bent ro the soil surface) more and more crop nearby, even at greater distances. This process then continue until harvest. That is  all for "explorers", most interested in regular shapes but nothing other, phenomena entirely ignored. So do the corn crops and other plants in surrounding fields, also affected by lightning, but the crop is lying there only and only in irregular shapes. Very often to a far greater extent than in the surrounding field with Crop Circle. Such fields of course remain completely out of any attention of any explorers, thanks to the fact that there were created only quite irregular lodged (damaged, weakened) shapes. It was certainly originated in the same or very similar time, as in the field with regular pattern, and from the very same reasons. Also very much depends on the intensity of the discharge. Some fields surrounding that containing regullar patterns are sometimes affected much more, than the fields with Crop Circles, and the crop contained there is thanks to that in some cases, say "harvested" (but lying there).

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Complex Interference Patterns

To the simulation of such complex, also very complex patterns is being developed PC program that would (possibly) allow at least partial emulation, although it may not completely succeed, because it is already quite complicated. Meanwhile is sufficient, that ever worked someone else, though on something completely different and with slightly different input conditions, than may be expected during formation of patterns in the fields (although under certain circumstances, there could happen to something similar). On the view is described the spreading of jump pulse across the media surface bounded by rectangle (field boundaries sometimes form a fairly accurate rectangle, although relatively rarely, much more often is a rectangle formed by tractor tracks, especially near field boundaries). GIF



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This page was prepared, and all the facts and theories presented here were very thoroughly, closely and in detail experimentally examined by


Jan Ledecky


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