lightning discharge
Water Surface Tension
(Introductory description)
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Crop circles

Stupidity gets up early; that is why events are accustomed to happening in the morning.  K.Kraus
A learned blockhead is a greater blockhead than an ignorant one. B.Franklin
A good plan violently executed now is better than a perfect plan executed next week.  G.S.Patton

Crop Circles, Crop figures, Water Surface Tension

Motto: Even before the weakened crop stalks bend to the ground, partially avoid them in that the fact that they incline slightly and begin to touch more one to other. Their structure will strengthen  a little.

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Some time after the damage caused by the passage of the current weakening of the plant reaches a level that the plant begins to incline to one side. Blade, especially the lowest part, is already so weak that it can not keep balance, and slowly begins bend to the ground. Alone crop stalk, not supported by any other, would relatively quickly lay down to the ground. Especially after overcoming a certain limit angle of inclination to the ground, which already its weakened tissue just above the earth can not hold effect of its own weight (power is many times increased by lever action). Such a blade can then be completely bend down to the ground in seconds, at most tens of seconds.


The effect of surface tension of water (adhesion),

is one of a series of processes at each other one after another, followed after weakening of plants by the lightning discharge on the area of many square meters, the effect ultimately leads to bending stalks to the ground. Their sequence is or will be elaborated in more detail on the page chronology. It is the action of van der Waals forces, which are reflected in the immediate vicinity of objects (containing a certain percentage of moisture), or their direct touching (leaves, stalks).


Temporary structure of plants propping up one another

At that moment, individual plants begin touching with each other by their stems, leaves and spikes observably more than before. Just that simple fact for some time temporarily restrict further tilting to the ground. This will reflect condition that could be termed as a teepee effect. Immediatelly also starts largely appearing effect of the water surface tension, that causes touching the leaves and stalks, thanks to its effect to attach themselves with a measurable force, what would not happen without containing water. In close proximity to several tenths of a millimeter from a living leaf of any plant moisture reaches the value 100% (as like as any other its part containing water), and manifests the increased adhesion to any subject touching it in immediate proximity. Repeated occurrence of higher water amounts in the form of dew or rain drops followed by drying even leaves and stems can be together partially sticked, that completely prevents any their subsequent lodging (damaging, weakening). Therefore many regular crop patterns never are discovered. On some Crop Circle images is actually possible to find a part of areas in a similar state. Picture 9.7.2006, Charlbury Hill, Oxfordshire, photo Frank Laumen,, montage J.L.



The power of surface tension

Force reaches the equivalent of weight less than a milligram per square centimeter, but there are touching one another tens of millions stalks and leaves per hectare, and only to overcome this force would be necessary use equivalent tens of tons. In the case that at the point, where two objects are touching each other, humidity is situated not only as the water contained within the plant, but like drops of dew or rain, referred power holding together similar two objects is up to several thousand times larger. This fact is possible to prove by a simple experiment. The existence of a force, which often operate with plants as a result of adhesion caused by the surface tension of water, and can stick to each other, is possible to find out in a simple experiment, as well as how to increase the adhesion by increasing humidity.


Like the leaves, stalks and ears can attach to each other thanks to the action of surface tension of water, the capture of themselves may also barley awns by microscopic hooks.



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Wheat field - a record of the lightning magnetic field lines

Shocking, perplexing, surprising, difficult to believe, but also eye-opening similarity

Wheat field - record of magnetic field lines generated by the lightning discharge

Nearly one million Amperes (known school experiments - maximum 20 - 30 Amperes)



Exactly at the moment of the lightning discharge flow through corn stalks induced and conducted (ionized air, corona discharge) electric currents. Thanks to that stalks and other plant parts may exhibit electromagnetic properties. They may thus act like magnetized compass needles, and electromagnetic forces are momentarily deflecting them to the ground in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction, depending on the relative ratio, direction and phase difference of the passaging electric currents. Temporary mechanical changes and tensions may also create some meanwhile invisible mechanical damage, oriented in direction. Such microscopic directionally oriented damages are able by gradual growing of damaged tissues later cause gradual directionally oriented bending of all stalks in one direction (CW or CCW). Magnetic fields of an average lightning discharges are at least ten thousand times stronger than that of Earth's magnetic field. Another part of the work may be performed by enormous electrostatic forces thanks to that leaves and stalks of plants behave like leaves and stalks of electroscopes. Diameters of the circles approximately represent the range of the lightning discharge electromagnetic forces. In addition to all that, however, the crop pattern occurs at least several days, sometimes up to several weeks after the lightning hit. It is because the affected plant tissues weaken very slowly, due to huge inertia and consequently very slowly ongoing changes in plants (EPP, Chronology). Because sometimes on the locality may take place very complex interferences and resonances, it may sometimes create a very intricate pattern. A single lightning discharge radiates energy to which the electric locomotive would travel thousands kilometers. Average (!) Discharge. (simplified explanation)


It was one of the greatest Natural joke - mystification, clever trick, by that was the Mother Nature kidding the whole perplexed mankind hundreds, thousands years.


With mentioned ideas is possible not agree, also possible protest against them, but it maybe really all that is possible to do with it or against it. So called Jerry Cimrman's postulate.



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Page under construction

Some partial information now may be found for example on certain summary pages.  Crop Circles - understanding is now mainly one of the most extensive page. Another fairly comprehensive informations may be found on the links from the page Texts. There are links to some published texts. Also some unpublished yet, ie some preview version. Other unsorted tests are placed here. The texts will be of course added continuously.


Honored readership is hereby requested for a patience and grace. Some highly specialized pages are indeed in most cases quite extensively prepared, just waiting to definitive arrangements to the final form and publication. But some paragraphs, and a lot of information from them are already extensively preliminary involved in the content of some above mentioned summary pages. Even information from some rather specialized pages are very often quite extensively overlapping one another. Often they are not only interconnected by a reference, but rather for clarity at several near related pages are almost repeated or will be repeated. Therefore, on some of them they can already be present, on others not yet.


Some pages or their parts have also been preliminarily committed to publish somewhere else, so the first will appear there, then shortly they will be linked from the page Texts, and after some time will finally appear on the page for which it was intended.


Also, to almost all pages are prepared a series of accompanying photos or illustrative graphics, whether own creation, or "collected works" from the Internet. Such points, for placement of although existing, but still unplaced photos, are in the text very strongly colored thus marked. These are primarily designations for author of the text himself, do finally care to step to place them there. It is a gradual publication of research results. That research lasted for several years, so it will take some time yet. Frequently also happened, that in the course of writing some page was sometimes placed in its paragraphs a text, that should rather be included on another page, but so far has not been copied or moved there.


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This page was prepared, and all the facts and theories presented here were very thoroughly, closely and in detail experimentally examined by


Jan Ledecky


The actor should be able to create the universe in the palm of his hand. Laurence Olivier
Beauty and folly are old companions. B.Franklin
Some people think having large breasts makes a woman stupid. Actually, it's quite the opposite: a woman having large breasts makes men stupid. Rita Rudner