lightning discharge
Crop Circles - physics
Physics of the lightning discharge, general characteristics, basic principles
crop circles
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Crop circles

It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how Nature is. Physics concerns what we say about Nature.  N.Bohr
The greatest lesson in life is to know that  Horaceeven fools are right sometimes.
The true sign of intelligence  is not knowledge but imagination. A.Einstein

Crop Circles, Crop figures, Basic Lightning Principles

PagPh
Lightning is the most powerful activity in physics. The current change rate of rise is round 30 000 A / μsec (the first Return Stroke, subsequent stroke often more 200 000). Unimaginable by any people's mind.

If interested, contact cropcirclesonline@gmail.com

 

Note: before extending this page, large amount of physical data, including electrical characteristics, contained on page Mechanics

 

Thunderstorms and Lightnings

 

Explanation of Lightning Creation

 

Classification of Lightning Types

 

Energetic Balances of the Lightning Discharges

 

Basic parameters of "normal, classic", average lightning (negative, cloud to ground).

Stepped leader
Step length Step length 50 m
Time interval between steps 20 - 50 μs
Step current >1 kA
Step charge >1 mC
Average propagation speed 200 klm / s
Overall duration 35 ms
Average current 100 - 200 A
Total charge 5 C
Electric potential ~ 50 MV
Channel temperature ~ 10.000 K
First Return Stroke based on measurements at the lightning channel base.
Peak current 30 kA
Maximum current rate of rise >10 - 20kA / μs
Current risetime (10 - 90 %) 5 μs
Current duration to half-peak value 70 - 80 μs
Charge transfer 5 C
Propagation speed 100 - 200.000 klm / s
Channel radius ~ 1 - 2 cm
Channel temperature ~ 30.000 K
Dart leader
Duration 1 - 2 ms
Charge 1 C
Current 1 kA
Electric potential ~ 15 MV
Speed 10 - 20.000 klm / s
Channel temperature ~ 20.000 K
Dart-stepped leader
Step length 10 m
Time interval between steps 5 - 10 μs
Average propagation speed 1 - 2.000 klm / s
Subsequent Return Stroke based on measurements at the lightning channel base.
Peak current 10 - 15 kA
Maximum current rate of rise 100kA / μs
10-90 percent current rate of rise 30-50 kA / μs
Current risetime (10-90 percent) 0.3 - 0.6 μs
Current duration to half-peak value 30 - 40 μs
Charge transfer 1 C
Propagation speed 100 - 200.000 klm / s
Channel radius ~ 1 - 2 cm
Channcl temperature ~ 30.000 K
Continuing current (longer ~ 40 ms) About 30 to 50% of lightnings contain currents durations longer than ~ 40 ms.
Magnitude 100 - 200 A
Duration ~ 100 ms
Charge transfer 10 - 20 C
M-component based on measurements at the lightning channel base.
Peak current 100 - 200 A
Current risetime (10-90 percent) 300 - 500 μs
Charge transfer 0.1 - 0.2 C
Overall flash
Duration 200-300 ms
Number of strokes per flash 3-5 (About 15 to 20 percent of lightning flashes are composed of a single stroke).
Interstroke interval 60 ms
Charge transfer 20 C
Energy 109 - 1010 J

 

Introduction to the Lightning Formation Phases

(refers to the most common type - downward negative discharge cloud - ground)

1. Preliminary Breakdown

 

 

2. Stepped Leader

 

 

3. Upward Positive Streamer

 

 

4. Attachment Process

 

 

5. Return Stroke

 

 

6. Dart Leader

 

 

7. Continuing Current

 

 

8. J and K Processes in Discharges to Ground

 

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Wheat field - a record of the lightning magnetic field lines

Shocking, perplexing, surprising, difficult to believe, but also eye-opening similarity

Wheat field - record of magnetic field lines generated by the lightning discharge

Nearly one million Amperes (known school experiments - maximum 20 - 30 Amperes)

 

  

Exactly at the moment of the lightning discharge flow through corn stalks induced and conducted (ionized air, corona discharge) electric currents. Thanks to that stalks and other plant parts may exhibit electromagnetic properties. They may thus act like magnetized compass needles, and electromagnetic forces are momentarily deflecting them to the ground in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction, depending on the relative ratio, direction and phase difference of the passaging electric currents. Temporary mechanical changes and tensions may also create some meanwhile invisible mechanical damage, oriented in direction. Such microscopic directionally oriented damages are able by gradual growing of damaged tissues later cause gradual directionally oriented bending of all stalks in one direction (CW or CCW). Magnetic fields of an average lightning discharges are at least ten thousand times stronger than that of Earth's magnetic field. Another part of the work may be performed by enormous electrostatic forces thanks to that leaves and stalks of plants behave like leaves and stalks of electroscopes. Diameters of the circles approximately represent the range of the lightning discharge electromagnetic forces. In addition to all that, however, the crop pattern occurs at least several days, sometimes up to several weeks after the lightning hit. It is because the affected plant tissues weaken very slowly, due to huge inertia and consequently very slowly ongoing changes in plants (EPP, Chronology). Because sometimes on the locality may take place very complex interferences and resonances, it may sometimes create a very intricate pattern. A single lightning discharge radiates energy to which the electric locomotive would travel thousands kilometers. Average (!) Discharge. (simplified explanation)

 

It was one of the greatest Natural joke - mystification, clever trick, by that was the Mother Nature kidding the whole perplexed mankind hundreds, thousands years.

 

With mentioned ideas is possible not agree, also possible protest against them, but it maybe really all that is possible to do with it or against it. So called Jerry Cimrman's postulate.

 

 

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Page under construction

Some partial information now may be found for example on certain summary pages.  Crop Circles - understanding is now mainly one of the most extensive page. Another fairly comprehensive informations may be found on the links from the page Texts. There are links to some published texts. Also some unpublished yet, ie some preview version. Other unsorted tests are placed here. The texts will be of course added continuously.

 

Honored readership is hereby requested for a patience and grace. Some highly specialized pages are indeed in most cases quite extensively prepared, just waiting to definitive arrangements to the final form and publication. But some paragraphs, and a lot of information from them are already extensively preliminary involved in the content of some above mentioned summary pages. Even information from some rather specialized pages are very often quite extensively overlapping one another. Often they are not only interconnected by a reference, but rather for clarity at several near related pages are almost repeated or will be repeated. Therefore, on some of them they can already be present, on others not yet.

 

Some pages or their parts have also been preliminarily committed to publish somewhere else, so the first will appear there, then shortly they will be linked from the page Texts, and after some time will finally appear on the page for which it was intended.

 

Also, to almost all pages are prepared a series of accompanying photos or illustrative graphics, whether own creation, or "collected works" from the Internet. Such points, for placement of although existing, but still unplaced photos, are in the text very strongly colored thus marked. These are primarily designations for author of the text himself, do finally care to step to place them there. It is a gradual publication of research results. That research lasted for several years, so it will take some time yet. Frequently also happened, that in the course of writing some page was sometimes placed in its paragraphs a text, that should rather be included on another page, but so far has not been copied or moved there.

 

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This page was prepared, and all the facts and theories presented here were very thoroughly, closely and in detail experimentally examined by

 

Jan Ledecky

 

He was the sort of person who stood on mountaintops during thunderstorms in wet copper armour shouting "All the Gods are bastards."  T.Pratchett
A physicist is just an atom's way of looking at itself.  N.Bohr
Between two evils, I always pick the one I never tried before.  Mae West
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