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Crop Circles - Summary
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Crop circles

Objects can be classified scientifically into three major categories: those that don't work, those that break down and those that get lost.  R.Baker
Any man is liable to err, only  a  fool  persists  in error.  M.T.Cicero
You become responsible, forever, for what you have tamed. A.S.Exupery

Crop Circles, Crop figures, Brief Research Summary



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This site except for a relatively simple explanation of crop circles arising principle brings perhaps understandable explanation, that all lodged (damaged, weakened) crops in the world occurs in exactly the same way - weakening of plants (their partial fading) by passaging electricity through after lightning discharges. An interesting phenomenon is also effect, that all lodging (damaging, weakening) may not occur immediately after the thunderstorm, in opposiion to that up to many days after the discharge, very often during beautiful weather. In the case of regular patterns combine together several influences, that contribute to regularity of the pattern, also fact, that usually appear very quickly, at most within a few hours or much earlier. These phenomena are elaborated in much more details on many other subpages.


In most cases where lodged (damaged, weakened) crop does not create any regular structures, begins bend to the ground many days or even weeks after the discharge of lightning. Depending on the intensity of damage is gradually adding more and more areas to harvest. The intensity of damage decreases mostly with distance from the point of lightning, so that gradually are bending to the ground areas in an increasingly greater distances from the primary point of the strike.


the plants (crop, stalks) may become lying in two different ways -  fast or gradually.

1) - fast lodging (damaging, weakening)

In the first case in plants accumulate harmful substances longer time, generated to a large extent by electrolysis, and plant is gradually weakening. Nevertheless, lasts a long time in vertical position. Only when the weakening reaches such an extent, the plant stem just above the ground (where, thanks to the lever effect the force is most powerful) can no longer withstand the forces, pressing to it. Most often it is the action of wind, but also may be their own weight of plants. Healthy plants would survive something like this without any consequences. By the action of the forces stalks bend without breaking just above the ground, usually around 2-5 cm, and the plants remain lying. The process may take sometimes only a few seconds, other times minutes, no more than hours. It is significant that immediately after that are lying on the ground at least for a short period of time straight crop stalks, close to the ground bent without breaking. A small part of the stalks, not more 10%, mostly at the borders of lodged (damaged, weakened) areas, may be close to the ground broken, instead of just bending. It is caused by that near borders of the lodged (damaged, weakened) area are located stalks not damaged in such an extent, and in other circumstances would remain standing okay. They are under high pressure of quickly bending neighborging stalks, stemming from one another and thus forming a continuous heavy mass. Weight of corn stalks system, one leaning against other, makes just in an area of several square decimetres many kilograms. Such a bundle will form leaning stems mostly on an area around from 30 to 50 cm apart, what means in the case of green wheat with just created spike or a little before it weigh approximately 6-7 kilograms. The average weight of the wheat crop with a fully developed ripening ear is of about 7 kilograms per 1m2, without additional weight of moisture supplied by rain or dew, which can add even more than another 50 %.


On the entire area, may not described quick lodging (damaging, weakening) ever occur at the same time. Bending time of every stalk bunch  may vary by a number of days. Immediately after that described quick bending of each bundle are lying on the ground straight stalks of grain at an angle approximately 90 degrees due to normal. Also immediately occurs the second phase - stalks are standing back, through nodes. Nodes, unlike the internodes, include meristems, and are able to change the direction, thanks to that the plant, or at least ripening stalks are maintaining upright. The first internode immediately above the ground (that bent), never change direction back upright. The second and third above will usually also stay lying on the groung. Conversely internode adjacent to the cob almost always straightens up, and some others below it, at least partially. Healthy well-developed wheat has 6 to 7 internodes. For the purposes of change of direction internodes nodes change shape. On the side opposite to the desired direction of straightening, the number of cells increase (irreversibly), the node swells, thickens and begins to bend in the desired direction. Described process begins several minutes after lodging (damaging, weakening). Also nodes, failing to elevate the plant (say, the first 3 - 4 from the ground) are permanently trying to make that, but in consequence of that they are only increasing in lenght. This makes it possible after some time, for example on barley find nodes 5 times longer against normal.


2) Gradual lodging (damaging, weakening)

In this case, the plants are bending to the ground very slowly, and the whole process may take longer than 14 days. In this case the whole straight stalk of the plant will never lay on the ground, because its individual internodes are directed by means of nodes continuously so at least an ear was directed as much as possible vertically upwards.  On the ground then lies less count of internodes, sometimes only one, and even lodged (damaged, weakened) parts of plants are far less damaged by moisture and consequences resulting from that.


An essential feature of the gradual lodging (damaging, weakening) is the fact that the shape of the resulting pattern is longer period completely unnoticeable. Then comes a longer period, which lasts several days, which is almost unnoticeable. But it exceeded the limit, during that it was not observable at all, and careful observer would have it observed. After some time, again a few days, it already exceeds the limit, when it is relatively easy noticeable.


Drawings, diagrams


The process, mostly involved on described events, is (see) negative geotropism (gravitropism). In the case of rapid stalks movement to the ground may probably on the change of growth direction of certain plant parts participate also phototropism.


The most important meaning of all the described processes is to protect ripening ears containing grains from ground moisture, or from an excess moisture from the rain, that is in continuous mass of lying plants remaining much longer than in the case of standing plants. Therefore contributes very significantly to the expansion of molds and rot, and such damaged plants may then be subsequently invaded by some other diseases and pests. Plant parts, that remain lying on the ground are actually noticeably attacked by molds and rot, but the ears can still ripen relatively successfully. Named prime phytopathological factors and their followers are not able to reach them, say, "in time", before harvesting. Grains in spikes, that remain lying on the ground until the harvest, are almost never completely ripened, and they are showing a substantial lack of maturation. Nothing matter, they remain non-harvested.



Summary - a few basic points

2. Farmers have almost always known, that lightning discharge in the fields cause a noticeable weakening of the plants up to death over a larger area (tens of square meters), it is completely objective and verifiable fact, that occurs in hundreds of articles and scientific publications.

There are several examples (photos, links)


2. Farmers almost always know that plants affected by lightning quite often show nonspecific signs of weakness and are secondarily attacked by diseases and pests. This can lead to confusion with other causes, and sometimes even the primary cause remains undetected. Mentioned assertion can be evidenced through numerous articles and scientific publications. Almost always there is the possibility of interchange causes repeatedly emphasized (see ...)

some examples (photos, links)


3. Farmers, of course, in addition to everything else, long ago discovered that the characters listed the passage of electric current due to a lightning strike close to the plants in some, though not all cases might occur quite precisely in a circle. Therefore for them the fact that the crop circles are caused discharge of lightning, does not mean almost any surprise. It is possible to believe that the vast majority of farmers some similar very simple explanation always expected. For reasons that are listed elsewhere, they have never disclose it to anyone.


Example - sunflowers. Here will be mentioned an example of one plant and one publication (link). In addition, this monothematic publication mentions that crop (grass - Poaceae) lightning strike in a high percentage survive, unlike crops with substantially lower seeding density. As one possible reason may be considered that the voluminous plants may be affected by electricity integrally, related to the area around the square meter, that they occupy. Individual plants of Poaceae stand, where one of them may occupy no more than ten centimeters square, might be affected very unevenly. While some may receive lethal doses hundreds of times, hundreds of others in their immediate vicinity are thus protected from higher ammount of electricity. Plant affected by a multiple acted as a miniature lightning rod. Although other plants are also affected, but not lethal, and thus survive, even if with a noticeable weakening. Is thus possible some time after lightning observe certain thinning of crop. Even lodged (damaged, weakened) plants are able often raise tens of centimeters back using phototropism and geotropism through known nodes function internodes bend upward, until finally might successfully ripen and be harvested.


4. Any serious agricultural research in the area of crop damage and lodging (damaging, weakening) in the shape of any patterns, frequently in a circle, was for decades forward in a very nasty way discredited and almost stopped by two senile drunks, whose names are Doug Bower and Dave Chorley. Therefore will be offered to farmers around the world a helping hand from an unbiased observer and occasional researcher, who does not belong exactly between "working in agriculture". This allows him, on the other hand, ask for help many other, often very distant and seemingly almost entirely unrelated fields of research, science and practice. A sample of scientific and research fields, which in addition to itself agrobiology and related procedures, is possible try to use for explaining this not particularly mysterious and relatively understandable phenomenon, is located here


Names Doug and Dave mean for agricultural research of the late twentieth and early 21st century almost the same, like the names Olga Borisovna Lepesinska and Trofim Denisovich Lysenko meant for the world of genetics in the mid-twentieth century. If namely D & D never staged their discrediting actions, farmers would have the whole very mysterious affair long ago resolved by themselves. Using quite natural development of observation and deduction latest estimated in the mid nineties. As in many other paragraphs of this site repeatedly mentioned, very similar phenomena they have always in a sufficient degree observed and documented in a sufficient number of of professional articles and scientific publications. To ensure that all together form a sufficient overarching material to the issue of lodging (damaging, weakening) crop, whether in regular or completely irregular formations, missed just a tiny step. Such a step has never been made, primarily because the researchers who would like to seriously take care about lodged (damaged, weakened) crop would have to pay attention at least marginally to crop lodged (damaged, weakened) in regular patterns. But it is really very difficult seriously take care about the issue, which has been by that two so much mentally retarded individuals in such a hideous way discredited.


The newly established name for D & D: Mental retarders

Obviously applies to anyone who would ever want to follow them


D & D had and maybe still have some followers, but them nobody knows. However, the two have always been the greatest, most famous and most important. OBL and TDL had certainly in their time and long after many followers, whose names nobody knows today. In the footsteps of OBL and TDL is now luckily really nobody walking. It will not last long, and in the footsteps of the D & D certainly will soon walk also nobody. It will not last long, and in the footsteps of the D & D certainly will soon walk also nobody. If not, sooner or later would really any of their followers with the real author of shaking hands. It would certainly did not wish anyone to him, such a thing should not wish to anyone, even if his brain was no matter how insane ...


That does not change anything on the fact. that as a characteristic of all of their activities (D & D), their whole existence in the world, and work have done there, it is possible to quote a classic:

"We would like vomit"


Exactly the same statement is, of course, possible to use for characterizing activities of OBL and TDL.



------------end of a few brief points summary----------------------------------


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Some translated paragraphs from older version

Brand new theory, using strictly real scientific methods, absolutely free of any pseudoscientific research or theories.


Able to explain more then three classic, typical very good known "unexplainable mysteries" able to find in every "normal", naturally formed Crop Circles.


(Written in the period May - June 2008. Gradually added others, also in other pages, and in 2011 is already possible to argue that such phenomena it is possible to explain completely all of them)


not microwaves, but normal electric forces (Joule's heat), also subminiature mechanic forces in tissues and cells (gas pressure due to gas produced by electrochemic processes), but much more likely due to growing of affected and damaged tissues




















This page was prepared, and all the facts and theories presented here were very thoroughly, closely and in detail experimentally examined by


Jan Ledecky


It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how Nature is. Physics concerns what we say about Nature.  N.Bohr
The greatest lesson in life is to know that even fools are right sometimes. Horace
The true sign of intelligence  is not knowledge but imagination. A.Einstein